Page 61 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Pre-service teacher inquiry in implemented and attained curriculum
 as analytical framework. This model distinguishes intended, implemented, and
attained curricula. The intended curriculum describes the purpose and value; the implemented curriculum is the teaching program as interpreted by its users; and
the attained curriculum consists of learning experiences as perceived by learners
(pre-service teachers) and the resulting learning outcomes (Van den Akker, 2003).
We compared the perceptions of pre-service teachers and teacher educators with 3 descriptions of the intended curriculum, as described in our previous study (Van
 Katwijk et al., 2019b). We formulated the following research questions:
Research question 1: Research question 2: Research question 3:
3 Method
How are the purpose and value of pre-service teacher inquiry in primary teacher education perceived?
How is the development of pre-service teacher inquiry competence implemented in teacher education programs? What are the most important learning outcomes from pre- service teacher inquiry?
Design of the study and participants
We used a survey followed by focus groups for deeper explanation (Figure 3.2). This combination of both qualitative and quantitative data provides a better understanding of the research problem (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2013). Before the focus group sessions took place, we asked all participants to complete a “perception pre-service teacher inquiry” questionnaire. Completing the survey helped participants focus on their own perceptions of pre-service teacher inquiry before sharing them with the focus group. Moreover, it allowed us to ask in-depth questions about their answers during the focus group sessions. The focus group sessions helped us understand the perceptions of teacher educators and pre-service teachers and obtain multiple perspectives on pre-service teacher inquiry (Puchta & Potter, 2004).
We invited teacher educators and pre-service teachers from eight institutes for primary school teacher education in the Netherlands to participate in the focus group sessions. We selected these eight institutes from a total of 25 Dutch institutes, according to the variety of their program descriptions of intended learning outcomes, teaching methods, and assessments of pre-service teacher inquiry (Van Katwijk et al., 2019b). We held the focus group sessions in 2016 and 2017; the sessions for pre-service

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