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                                Research Research-tutored - knowledge Quadrant I
Technical training in research methodology (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; Reis-Jorge, 2005; Toom et al., 2010; White et al., 2016)
Knowledge Research- led - about research Quadrant III
in domain -
Familiarizing pre-service teachers with findings of previous research (Ulvik & Riese, 2016)
Use of research examples from practice and authentic learning tasks (Van der Linde et al., 2015)
Research skills
Research- - oriented
Practical training in research methodology (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; Reis-Jorge, 2005; Toom et al., 2010; White et al., 2016)
Quadrant IV
- Academic writing course (Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Rade, 2019)
Pre-service teacher inquiry in implemented and attained curriculum
 has two axes: vertical (i.e., from students as participants to students as audience) and
horizontal (i.e., from focus on research content to focus on research processes) (see
Figure 3.1). This division leads to four main types of undergraduate engagement with
research and inquiry: (1) research-tutored (i.e., engaging in research discussions), (2)
research-based (i.e., undertaking research and inquiry), (3) research-led (i.e., learning
about current research in the discipline), and (4) research-oriented (i.e., developing 3 research and inquiry skills). All four ways are valid and valuable, and curricula should
contain elements of all of them (Healey & Jenkins, 2009). The development of pre- service teachers’ inquiry competence fits into this model (Figure 3.1). To develop an inquiry habit of mind, students should participate actively in either research-tutored or research-based activities.
Table 3.1 Overview of teaching and learning activities for developing inquiry competence, in relation to the model of Healey and Jenkins (2009)
    Inquiry competence
   Model of Healey & Jenkins
   Teaching/learning activity
 Inquiry habit Research-tutored - of mind & Research-
based - Quadrant I + II
Pre-service teachers practice with argumentation, decision making, and justification while problem solving (Toom et al., 2010) Reflection on the process and outcomes of research and inquiry (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; Reis-Jorge, 2005; White et al., 2016)
Research Research-based - application Quadrant
II -
Inquiry-based classes, practicing with small inquiries (Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Schulz & Mandzuk, 2005)
Capstone inquiry project (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; White et al., 2016)
- Working in pairs, critical friends, or groups; communities of inquiry (Dobber, Akkerman, Verloop, & Vermunt, 2012; Van der Linden et al., 2012)
- Organization of formal conferences, in which pre-service teachers present their inquiries to peers, teacher educators, teachers, and members of school boards (Schulz & Mandzuk, 2005)
- Inquiry collaboration between universities and schools (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009; Schulz & Mandzuk, 2005)
- Reading literature (Munthe & Rogne, 2015)
- Lectures based partly on own research (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Toom et al., 2010)

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