Page 63 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Pre-service teacher inquiry in implemented and attained curriculum
 Table 3.2 Overview of participating institutes (TE UASs), teacher educators (TEs) and pre-service students (PSTs) in the survey and focus groups
A 614173
B 6 7 22 9
C 34110*
D 342243
E 6284
F 2564
G 65 7 235 3
H 7553
I 0010 J 0 0 13 0 K 0 0 19 0
Total 98 48 359 30
*We were unable to organize a PST focus group for Institute C because of time constraints on the pre-service teachers.
Data collection and analysis
Our questionnaire was inspired by a questionnaire used in previous research on student perceptions, attitudes, and research behavior in their future profession (Van der Linden et al., 2015); it consisted of four open questions about the students’ research questions, their most important learning gains, the weak and strong points of their programs, and 35 Likert-type scale questions. We chose a 6-point Likert- type scale (1 = “totally disagree” to 6 = “totally agree”) to avoid a neutral option. We negatively formulated eight items and applied reverse scoring in the analysis, such as, “Conducting research is a compulsory component of the degree program but I do not understand how it is useful for a teacher.”
We conducted a principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation in SPSS 25 of the 35 Likert-type scale items, according to our expectation that the factors would be correlated. We used a cut-off value of .40 for the factor loadings (Field, 2019). This exploratory analysis revealed four factors for interpretation. Table 3.3 shows the Cronbach’s alphas retrieved from the reliability analysis. See appendix B for the factors with factor loadings.
  Survey # TEs
    Focus group # TEs
   Survey # PSTs
   Focus group # PSTs

   61   62   63   64   65