Page 125 - Ultrasonography in Prehospital and Emergency Medicine - Rein Ketelaars
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                 Emergency physician-performed ultrasound-guided nerve blocks in proximal femoral fractures 123
Just before discharge from the ED, patients were asked about the level of (dis)comfort they experienced and if they were motivated to undergo a similar procedure in the future. In ad- dition, EPs self-reported five attributes of the procedure. These attributes were scored on a 1–10 rating scale as shown in Table 5.1.
Statistical analysis
Normally distributed data are reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or 95% confidence interval (CI), and data with a skewed distribution, including absolute pain scores, are re- ported as median with an interquartile range (IQR). A one-tailed paired Wilcoxon test was used to test for differences in pain scores within subjects because these are ordinal values, not normally distributed. To test for differences between subgroups in relative and absolute pain score changes (normally distributed), a t-test and a one-way ANOVA was used. Pearson correlation was calculated for the influence of age and injected volume of LA. Statistical significance was considered at p < .05. For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS Statistics for Win- dows, version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA), and GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA) were used.
 Table 5.1 Attributes of the ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia procedure
 Attribute
  Score – 1
  Score – 10
  Patient
(Dis)comfort experienced during the procedure
Would like to undergo a similar procedure in the future Emergency Physician
Ease of the procedure
Success of procedure itself regardless of the effect Visibility of anatomical structures on ultrasound Spread of local anesthetic on ultrasound
Subjective added value of procedure to patient care
very uncomfort- able would like it never again
very difficult
did not succeed at all
hard to recognize bad spread
no added value
not uncomfort- able at all would like it again
very easy
very successful procedure
easy to recognize
good spread
absolute added value
  These attributes were to be reported by the patients and self-reported by emergency physicians on a 1-10 numeric rating scale.
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