Page 73 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Pre-service teacher inquiry in implemented and attained curriculum
 al., 2015) and with the intended curriculum of Dutch institutes for primary teacher education(Van Katwijk et al., 2019b).
However, pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the implementation of the
development of inquiry competence differ from teacher educators’ visions and
perceptions of how inquiry competence is being taught. First, pre-service teachers
do not recognize the teaching–learning trajectory as it is outlined in program 3 descriptions (Van Katwijk et al., 2019b). Some pre-service teachers feel they had to
start their capstone inquiry projects without preparation from earlier years; that is, they do not recognize the teaching activities in Healey and Jenkins’s (2009) Research- oriented quadrant. Teacher educators, in contrast, identify the teaching–learning trajectory for inquiry competences as a strong point of the program, in all four quadrants of the model (Healey & Jenkins, 2009). Authors of previous studies have emphasized the need for discussion and debate within faculties about the role of pre- service teacher inquiry, because the impact of inquiry is limited when it is restricted to only some courses or inconsistently taught (e.g., Cochran-Smith et al., 2009; Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Puustinen et al., 2018; Schulz & Mandzuk, 2005).
Second, pre-service teachers perceive that the program focuses on research skills, whereas teacher educators tend to believe it encompasses a broader inquiry habit of mind. Few pre-service teachers in our study were able to identify teaching activities that had stimulated their inquiry habit of mind, though teacher educators mentioned various examples from own teaching practices. In line with previous studies, teacher educators indicated that they stimulated reflection on the process and outcomes of research and inquiry (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; Reis-Jorge, 2005; White et al., 2016) and emphasized working with critical friends or groups (Dobber et al., 2012; Van der Linden et al., 2012). Van der Rijst, Visser-Wijnveen, Verloop and Van Driel (2013) also refer to differing perceptions between teachers and undergraduate students with regard to the focus of research and inquiry; for students to appreciate the intangible elements of research, such as developing an inquiry habit of mind, teacher educators may need to emphasize those elements in their communications with students. Cochran-Smith et al. (2009) note that pre-service teachers in their study engaged in aspects of inquiry as spelled out in the scoring rubric rather than engaging in inquiry as an integral part of teaching, which is similar to perceptions of teacher educators in our sample. This finding is also in line with the results of our previous document analysis (Van Katwijk et al., 2019b). To achieve constructive alignment, teacher education programs should reconsider their current methods of assessing inquiry competence (Biggs & Tang, 2011).

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