Page 72 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Chapter 3
 Table 3.6 Distribution of inquiry competencies in answers about the most important learning outcomes
PSTs 12% 40% 27% 46% 20%
TEs 4% 24% 70% 40% 16%
Teacher educators (n = 83) also answered the survey question about most important learning outcomes, and 70% of the answers related to aspects of an inquiry habit of mind, including critical thinking. Furthermore, 40% of these educators mentioned research skills, and 23% identified “the ability to link theory and practice” as most important learning outcome of pre-service teacher inquiry.
The findings from the focus group sessions thus show many similarities in perceptions between pre-service teachers and teacher educators about learning outcomes. Pre-service teachers learn to think deeply, look critically, work systematically, link theory and practice, and feel empowered and proud, because of their achievements. Approximately half the pre-service teachers report they do not expect to conduct research or inquiry ever again, though all are convinced they have become better teachers because of the inclusion of pre-service teacher inquiry in the program.
5 Discussion
This paragraph compares our findings with those of previous research, including the results of a previous study of pre-service teacher inquiry in the intended curricula of Dutch primary teacher education (Van Katwijk et al., 2019b).
The first research question focuses on how the purpose and value of pre- service teacher inquiry is perceived. The finding that all participants believe pre-service teacher inquiry is interesting and important, contrast with previous research, in which pre-service teachers and teachers expressed somewhat negative attitudes (e.g., Joram, 2007; Puustinen et al., 2018; Ulvik, 2014). Our findings of positive perceptions may result because pre-service teachers are being proud of their achievements, are feeling empowered, and believe that pre-service teacher inquiry contributes to their quality as teachers; they regard an inquiry habit of mind (e.g., being critical and curious and willing to share and innovate) as the most important purpose of pre-service teacher inquiry. This finding is in line with some prior findings (e.g., Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009; Earl & Katz, 2006; Jacobs et
      Knowledge methodology
   Knowledge subject
   Inquiry habit of mind
  Research skills
    To apply research

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