Page 17 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                General introduction
  consider inquiry as stance similar to the disposition of inquiry-based working teachers 1 (Baan et al., 2018; Uiterwijk-Luijk, Krüger, Zijlstra & Volman, 2017), and an inquiry
habit of mind is a crucial component of it (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009).
2.2 How to develop inquiry competences
Few studies focus on teaching pre-service teacher inquiry competences to undergraduates, compared with the volume of literature on teaching how to conduct research to graduate students (Dunn et al., 2008; Munthe & Rogne, 2015). In practice, the inquiry competences are intertwined; for example, it is not possible to apply previous research findings without using research knowledge. However, the distinction between the competences is functional with regard to teaching and learning related to pre-service teacher inquiry: Which teaching and learning activities should be implemented in the teacher education curriculum to achieve the intended learning outcomes? Previous research identifies teaching and learning activities assumed to be effective in engaging pre-service teachers in inquiry and developing inquiry competences. Regarding the competence research knowledge, studies suggest the following activities: reading literature and familiarizing pre-service teachers with findings of previous research (e.g., Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Ulvik & Riese, 2016), technical training in research methodology (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; Reis-Jorge, 2005; Toom et al., 2010; White et al., 2016) and teacher educators’ use of research examples from practice and own research (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Toom et al., 2010; Van der Linde et al., 2012). Research skills can best be learned by authentic learning tasks (Van der Linde et al., 2012), practical training in research methodology (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; Reis-Jorge, 2005; Toom et al., 2010; White et al., 2016) and an academic writing course (Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Rade, 2019). Application of research in practice can be learned by practicing with small inquiries (Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Schulz & Mandzuk, 2005) or a capstone inquiry project, ideally including collaboration between universities and schools (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009; Schulz & Mandzuk, 2005; White et al., 2016). Finally, several authors describe teaching and learning activities to develop an inquiry habit of mind: practicing with argumentation, decision making and justification while problem solving and reflecting on the process and outcomes of research and inquiry (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Dunn et al., 2008; Reis-Jorge, 2005; Toom et al., 2010; White et al., 2016); working in pairs or groups, as critical friends (Dobber et al., 2012; Van der Linden et al., 2012) and sharing

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