Page 16 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Chapter 1
 Dana & Yendol-Hoppey, 2014; Jacobs et al., 2015; Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Sachs, 2016).
2. Research skills, such as conducting a literature review; formulating a research question; choosing and using research methods; collecting data by, for example, observation or interview; drawing conclusions and using scientific language (Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Kowalczuk et al., 2019; Munthe & Rogne, 2015).
3. Application of research in practice, which Earl and Katz (2006) interpret as being capable of ‘evidence-informed decision making’ that requires not conducting research per se but rather using research literature and findings to (re)design own teaching practice (Baan et al., 2019; Kowalczuk et al., 2019). Aspfors and Eklund (2017, p. 406) call this ‘research-related teaching’.
4. An inquiry habit of mind, originally defined by Earl and Katz (2006) as a way of thinking that values deep understanding, reserves judgements, has a tolerance for ambiguity, takes different perspectives and poses increasingly focused questions. Van der Rijst (2009), whose work is regularly cited in Dutch higher education policy, articulates six characteristics of an inquiry habit of mind: a tendency to be critical and a desire to understand, to share, to innovate, to know and to achieve.
The scientific literature has a variety of broadly similar descriptions and terms regarding the inquiry habit of mind, with many interpretations (e.g., Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009; Earl & Katz, 2006; Schön, 1986; Uiterwijk-Luijk et al., 2019). In general, the concept of the inquiry habit of mind is ill-defined in both literature and practice. In literature the term inquiry as stance is often used interchangeably with inquiry habit of mind (e.g., Jacobs et al., 2015; Uiterwijk-Luijk et al., 2019). However, Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2009), who introduced the concept of inquiry as stance as a way of looking, acting and having a habitual, continuous attitude to inquire, refer to an inquiry habit of mind as a part of an inquiry stance. When teachers take an inquiry stance, they act as reflective practitioners (Schön, 1986), pose questions or wonderings, use findings of previous research and scientific knowledge in their practice and share new insights from collected data (Dana & Yendol-Hoppey, 2019). An inquiry as stance is introduced as a counterpart to inquiry as project, which is shorter and finite. In this research, we

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