Page 111 - Second language development of newly arrived migrant kindergarteners - Frederike Groothoff
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Mam has flown \[wrong Dutch inflection\] back and go away again. And mam flies and see not puss, but it is. Puss jumps upon the tree. Mam flies has baby is flies eat \[food?\]. And then, puss jumps on the second baby. And then dog comes, puss do not see. And dog grabs of the cat’s tail. And takes from the tree. Puss go run away and dog behind puss. The GIS is a second measure of lexical diversity in this study. From the comparison between the consecutive models for the GIS (Table 5.11) it is apparent that a model with a fixed linear component – allowing for differences in Age – fit the data better than a model with only an intercept (ΔΧ2 (GIS1) = 63.11; df = 1; p < .001). The variance within individuals did not depend on the age of the participants (GIS2). However, the variance between individuals was a (linear) function of age (ΔΧ2 (GIS3) = 4.90; df = 1; p = .03). The inclusion of Age2 did not improve the fit of the model (GIS4). Hence, in the final model (GISDEF) a fixed main effect of Age, as well as a variance between pupils component which depends on Age needs to be included, and with this model we continued the analysis. Table 5.11: Fit of Different Models (-2LL) for Changes in Guiraud Index Score (168 cases). Comparison ΔΧ2 Δdf p Development of narrative ability 111      Model GIS0: β0ijcons a       432.48 -2LL Models          GIS1: GIS0 + β1Age1ij GIS2: GIS1 + e1ijAge1ij GIS3: GIS2 + u10jAge1ij GIS4: GIS3 + β2Age2ij GISDEF: β0ijcons + β1jAge1ij       362.10 a GIS0: In addition to the intercept, variance components for differences within and between individuals are estimated. b Only the covariance-coefficient between the intercept- and the age-residuals was estimated. Based on this General Development Model we constructed Figure 5.6, in which both the average development as well as the differences within and between individuals are represented (see Table 2.2 in Appendix 2 for the parameter estimates). The average GIS at an age of 73 months was estimated as 3.63. Each month a child grew older, his GIS increased by 0.04. 369.37 GIS0 vs GIS1 365.75 GIS1 vs GIS2 360.86 GIS2 vs GIS3 359.68 GIS3 vs GIS4 63.11 1 3.62 2 4.90 1 1.18 1 <.001 .16ns .03b .28ns              

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