Page 94 - Crossing Cultural Boundaries - Cees den Teuling
P. 94

 As argued by Lowik et al (2012, p. 6) “the multi-level characteristic of ACAP is used to distinguish conceptually between organisational ACAP routines and the ACAP activities of individuals”. Figure 5 illustrates the multi-level character of ACAP and the interactions between organisational routines and individual activities. The latter are presented by the two-sided vertical arrows. ACAP is considered as multi-level and in the same time, as a multi-dimensional construct. As mentioned previously, the organisational ACAP is jointly formed as a construct of four dimensions: recognition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation (Jansen, Van den Bosch & Volbeda, 2005; Todorova & Durisin, 2007; Zahra & George, 2002). The four blocks shown in Figure 5 represent the four dimensions. They all are distinctive and related to separated processes (Jansen et al., 2005). “They have separate but complementary roles” and “coexist at all times” (Zahra & George, 2002, p.191). The four dimensions are interrelated and illustrated by following the knowledge flow through the ACAP processes in a subsequent order. A starting point is the recognition by individuals of new or modified knowledge, identified by them as a valuable for the organisation. In Figure 5 the flow of knowledge is characterised and illustrated with the arrow in horizontal position, starting with recognition at individual level. In the assimilation phase through and by internal knowledge dissemination, the personal knowledge becomes organisational knowledge. The described development is illustrated by the arrow, initiated from the individual level and leading to the level of organisation. After assimilation, the acquired knowledge is developed into ideas through the confrontation with the already available knowledge from the other members of the organisation. To conclude, in the exploitation phase, the newly adapted knowledge is applied to realise new products, services or processes. In sequence with the flow of knowledge to the organisational level of the ACAP processes, individuals, after assimilation, keep the possession of new knowledge. Personal ownership of knowledge is shown in Figure 5 by the dotted arrow (Lowik et al., 2012).

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