Page 90 - Crossing Cultural Boundaries - Cees den Teuling
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obtained is technically specific and thus, delivers a barrier for comprehension by outsiders. Transformation capability is requested in the organisation when the recognition of opportunities to be merged into a new concept from two different, incongruous frames of information should lead to new competencies. Exploitation is the organisation’s capacity to incorporate existing, acquired and transformed knowledge to a useful and profitable incorporation in operations.
The four dimensions of ACAP in combination are divided into “potential” capacity (acquisition and assimilation) and “realised” capacity (transformation and exploitation). As argued by Svensson (2007), ACAP of the client should be present to be successful in the KT. Besides, the education and the economic and social structure should be captured. If negative, transferring cost of KT will be higher, since local staff should be trained before the KT operation starts. Both, Potential Absorptive Capacity (PACAP) and Realised Absorptive Capacity (RACAP) are complementary in the process of efficient use of conditions, leading to organisation’s increased performance.
Figure 3: The Model of ACAP (Zahra & George, 2002)
 Absorptive Capacity
    Knowledge source and complementary experience
Potential acquisition assimilation
Realized transformation exploitation
Competitive advantage
Strategic flexibility, innovation, performance
                 Activation Social integration triggers mechanisms
Regimes of appropriation
  According to Hamel (1991) intention to accept the
key condition to reach ensured SVC. Since this research is focused on managerial and business-oriented KT to and with Russian organisations, the roles of the actors, the recipients and the transmitters are emphasised. As a more developed, balanced exchange of knowledge it is not rigidly accepted that Russian organisations are the sole receivers and the Western organisations are the sole transmitters of knowledge. Personal experience from and by observation during Russia’s transition period and beyond, gives evidence to the fact that a number of Russian organisations have out-learnt their Western counterparts.
As argued by Zahra and George (2002, p. 185) “Firms with well-developed capabilities of acquisition and assimilation (PACAP) are likely to be more adept on
knowledge is a

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