Page 86 - Crossing Cultural Boundaries - Cees den Teuling
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orientation on the existence of myths, trophies and rituals in the organisation but a focus on what is the knowledge base of the employees in the organisation, the individually and/or collectively knowledge gaining processes. While learning, their concentration is on interactions, physical artefacts, acts and the language used in the learning process with and between them (Yanov, 2000). Knowing and learning are attributes of individuals. The collective dimension is seen in practice, by the combined mastery of the topic. E.g. groups of musicians or sport teams does not learn their “performance” as individual parts, but as parts of the “collective” (Gagliardi, 1998). The underlying study tends to implement a pluralistic approach in researching the KT processes in trans- boundary environments, notwithstanding, recognizing and validating the variety of supporting or competing stances in organisational theory or OL (Earl, 2012).
Explored by prior research, emotional intelligence (EI) is characterized as the ability to be aware of one’s own emotions, as well as to read others’ emotions (Davies, Stankov & Roberts, 1998; Zadel, 2008). Previous work by Goleman (1995), researching and analysing nearly two hundred larger, globally oriented organisations, determined the personal capacities of leaders with outstanding outcomes within the researched organisations and their level of performance acquired. His study presented a model to cluster Personal capabilities into three catagories: (i) technical skills, (ii) cognitive skills, and (iii) EI competencies. Findings in Goleman’s research proved that EI twice as important is for leadership functions as for technical skills and cognitive strengths. Components of EI as exhibited by an effective leader are listed as: (i) self-awareness, (ii) self-regulation, (iii) motivation, (iv) empathy, and (v) socials skills (Goleman, 1998; Goleman & Stipcevic, 2005). From the perspective of EI the cross-cultural setting of Russia is defined as part of the Eastern Europe cultural Cluster in the project GLOBE (Javidan & House, 2002). Grouped by many similarities the countries in a cluster are more like each other and share more similarities than any at random selected country from outside the dedicated cluster.
The existence and the functions of EI as a driver for Leadership Performance (LP), observed and described by Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee (2001), can be instrumental to an OC, as well as be supported and enhanced by a leader with a higher level of EI. Shared information, a high level of trust and a developed risk-taking approach, supported by a learning attitude, are the recognisable landmarks of the culture of a flourishing organisation. On the other side of the spectrum, leadership with a low level or even the absence of EI creates a culture of indifference, lack of trust and even fear. Organisations with this type of climate are able to achieve remarkable results in the

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