Page 203 - Crossing Cultural Boundaries - Cees den Teuling
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hiding of mistakes and failures and the lack of initiative and the dependence on receiving direct orders, were expected to be manifested in Russian organisations based on the peculiarities of the Russian NC described in the literature. Our research unveils a somewhat different picture. In general, the employees and managers, participating in the underlying research, took a more “enlightened” position, possibly, as assumed by the author, because of their younger age in average, a more internationally oriented scope and the involvement in the foreign training, traineeship in a host-organisation and/or the experiences in working with foreign consultants.
Environment in Russian organisations
Authors (e.g. Schein 1985, 1992; Quinn, 1988) argue that the NC is important in the home-organisation because it creates common beliefs, attitudes and ideas in and among groups. Research by Kattman (2014) argues that the NC is often dominant over OC. According to Groeschl and Doherty (2000), culture is defined from a wide variety of angles. Above all, as mentioned by Foster (1991), the NC requires the demarcation of boundaries, by the common feelings of being together and sharing norms and values. As argued by Kets de Vries (2001, p. 603) “The oscillation between order and chaos in Russian organisation is quite noticeable”. Closer analysis showed that the eruptions were often the result of a systemic pattern of injustice within the organisation that had finally come to a head. The cohesion in the internal environment between and within Russian organisations, also described as “familyism” among others, is determined by the mutual level of trust and openness and is essential in the collaboration with internal and external partners (Fukyama 1995b; Lessem & Neubauer, 1994).
In this research, the level of trust among employees within one department was considered to be very high or high by the majority and moderate by the minority. Only a few employees described it as low or very low. The level of trust among employees and managers was rated to be very high or high by one third of employees. Another one- third thought that the level of trust between employees and managers was moderate.
By the majority of employees and managers the environment of the home- organisation was judged as somewhat progressive, stable and supportive. Only minority perceived it as disruptive, chaotic and “laisser-faire”.
The majority of employees and managers were convinced that the NC has a severe influence on the culture of the home-organisation. The main transmitters of the NC in the organisation were considered managers and leaders, whose culture was dominant in OC. In contrast, the NC of foreign employees and partners was seen as less

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