Page 148 - Crossing Cultural Boundaries - Cees den Teuling
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To conclude, the dissemination of respondents over the Russian territory from the two surveys combined is considered to be proportionate, thus representative from a geographical perspective. The representativeness of the size of the organisations, included in the response, is characterised as sufficient (see Table 11 (p. 139) the number of employees in organisations and Table 12 (p. 139) indicating the groups of annual turnover. The degree of proportionality of the surveys’ participants by the Federal Districts and per business sector with the overall picture of organisations participated in PUM programme is sufficient, as displayed in Tables 13, 14, 15 (p. 140-141).
The pie chart below show the combined representation of respondents from both the “Organisations” and “Alumni” samples over the Federal Districts of the Russian Federation.
Chart 1: Participated organizations and alumni combined
Organizations and alumni (overall)
Far East federal district
Volga federal district
Northw est federal district North Caucasus federal district Siberia federal district
Ural federal district Central federal district South federal district Not applicable
         As compared with a more traditional approach to the element of “validity” the level of “validity” accomplished in the underlying research is not ideal. However, taken into consideration the obstacles encountered in the field research, e.g. language of communication, the dependence on digital channels, the low-trust stance to outsiders, the tendency to “secretion” and the vast territory to be covered, the level of “validity” is considered acceptable.
Additionally, since the criteria for “validity” are less “rigid” in the Action Research methodology and approach, the level of “Validity” as reached in the study at hand, complies with the “Goals of Action Research and Validity Criteria”, as elaborated and documented in section 3.2.4. and Table 4 (p. 119).

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