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quantitative and qualitative data are acquired separately but the outcomes are confronted, compared and analysed. The mere argument for implementing the MMR format is based on the assumption that both approaches (quantitative and qualitative) of data-collection have strengths and weaknesses, connected to each method. The combination of both approaches will eliminate the weaknesses and support the strengths, in favour of a more balanced and realistic outcome.
In the upcoming section, the actors/participants in AR process in organisations, e.g. researchers and practitioners, their activities, responsibilities and the approach to processes are analysed, discussed and commented.
3.2.3 Action Research in practice
Following the AR framework and based on the Brewer and Hunter (1989) approach, it is assumed, that it:
• is exploratory in nature;
• partly has a designing character;
• should yield relevant knowledge for those involved;
• is focused on and should be an addition to the science and practice of KT
between OCs;
• is possible to integrate research materials from third parties.
Characteristics of AR can be described as follows.
AR has an orientation to future. Dealing with and including practitioners (i.e. managers, entrepreneurs and staff) as partners in the research, deals with individual concerns awarded as purposeful participants. In the underlying study, practitioners are involved in online survey and focus group sessions, to share their views and to be included in the final outcome of the research.
AR deals with practitioners and includes them into the research guided by objectives, goals and developments for the future.
AR has a collaborative nature. The connection and cooperation between the researcher and the practitioner is an essential element. The direction of the research process, their demands and abilities are functional to gain the desired outcomes for both. Also in the research at hand, there is an intensive collaboration between the involved researchers (OBI & CASD) and the practitioners (managers, entrepreneurs and staff) from the responding organisations.
AR is supporting the development of systems. The direction in AR is to develop
suitable structures, their capacity and to maintain and direct the iterative process of the

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