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Reconfiguring workplaces
 Relationships are crucial for work (Heaphy et al., 2018; Khazanchi et al., 2018) and scholars have called to bring them to the foreground of research (Khazanchi et al., 2018; Methot et al., 2017; Ragins & Button, 2007). Work relationships are conceptualized as two or more entities interacting in a patterned way over time in the work context (Ferris et al., 2009). Often, specific relationships are investigated, such as between leaders and members (Colbert et al., 2016; Ragins & Button, 2007). However, as work is becoming more interdependent (Barley & Kunda, 2001; Grant & Parker, 2009), also across departmental boundaries, the importance of peripheral relationships increases. There has been a call to differentiate in relationship quality (Khazanchi et al., 2018), such as between positive and negative ties. Especially positive ties – those that are perceived as mutually beneficial (Ragins & Button, 2007) – are connected to innovative work behaviors (Carmeli & Spreitzer, 2009), increased performance (e.g., Hochwarter et al., 2007) and reduced turnover rates (e.g., Krackhardt & Porter, 1985).
Co-located work and relationships. One stream of literature focused on co-located workers in single workplaces such as offices (e.g., Brennan et al., 2002; Fayard & Weeks, 2006; Irving et al., 2019; Oldham & Brass, 1979; Zalesny & Farace, 1987). The literature typically describes offices along one or more of four spatial dimensions, such as proximity, privacy, crowding, and workplace assignment (Khazanchi et al., 2018). These dimensions impact a wide range of individual and organizational outcomes, such as communication (Fayard & Weeks, 2006; Sailer & McCulloh, 2012), cognitive performance (Jahncke et al., 2011), or job satisfaction (Sundstrom et al., 1980). Regarding informal communication, Fayard and Weeks (2006) found that it is not only the spatial layout that plays a role but that there is also a social aspect in workplaces. For example, an employee also needs to perceive a location as socially designated for an activity, thus feeling comfortable to be there.
Studies in co-located office settings have identified several spatial dimensions that influence employee interaction and, in turn, work relationships (Khazanchi et al., 2018). Specifically, the spatial dimensions of privacy and proximity have an impact on coworker interaction (Bernstein &

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