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Ideas in place privacy simultaneously in studies.
4.5.2 Limitations and future research
Our study is also subject to several limitations. First, given the cross- sectional data utilized in this paper, we cannot claim causality in this study and, therefore, variables may be reciprocally related. Future research should employ longitudinal and experimental designs to establish how workplace transparency influences idea sharing and implementation. Adjusting to changes in workplaces does not happen at one point in time but is a process like most change processes (Burnes, 2017), it would be an improvement to track data over time. Especially beneficial would be a situation where a pre- and a post-transformation measure were conducted to enable a comparison between the employee's perceptions of different types of workplaces. Also, we want to join the call for real-time data (Davis et al., 2011). While there is often an immediate impact from new work environments on employee behaviors, the effect will change as employees become familiar with the environment and either adapt how they work to the new environment, or they change the environment.
Second, the measures discussed are all self-reported measures. In our case, self-report measures were appropriate because we were concerned with the perceptions of employees and how these influenced idea sharing and implementation behavior. Employees’ awareness of these situational and more subtle influences, makes employees particularly suited to self-report data (Shalley et al., 2009), and be based on more complete information (e.g., history, context, intention) than is accessible to the supervisor. Also, previous studies have found that self-reported measures of innovation correlate with supervisor ratings (Axtell et al., 2000). Nevertheless, a future study might want to use objectively gathered data (e.g., let colleagues rate employee behavior) or self-report measures combined with a tracking device that records meta-data of interactions between employees.
Third, few will argue against the statement that contemporary 148

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