Page 55 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Pre-service teacher inquiry in implemented and attained curriculum
 1 Introduction
Working inquiry-based is increasingly assumed to be necessary for teachers in primary
and secondary education (Baan, Gaikhorst, & Volman, 2018; Cochran-Smith & Lytle,
2009; Darling-Hammond, 2017). Therefore, in recent decades, Dutch bachelor-level
teacher education programs have paid attention to pre-service teacher research. To 3 enhance and influence pre-service teachers’ affective and cognitive attitudes about
research and developing their research skills, teacher education is assumed to play a crucial role (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Maaranen, 2009; Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Van der Linden, Bakx, Ros, Beijaard, & Vermeulen, 2012). Darling-Hammond’s (2017) comparative study of teacher education in various countries shows that a research- based orientation combined with an inquiry approach to practical preparation enhances teacher effectiveness.
To date, studies of pre-service teacher research have focused on graduate degree programs, such as research-based teacher education programs in Finland that aim to provide teachers with an understanding of research practice and give them the ability to make rational, theory-based decisions (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Puustinen, Säntti, Koski, & Tammi, 2018; Råde, 2019; Toom et al., 2010). Only a few studies have reported on the achievements and implementation of pre- service teacher research in undergraduate programs (e.g., Dunn, Harrison, & Coombe, 2007; Guilbert, Lane, & Van Bergen, 2016; Reis-Jorge, 2007; Van der Linden et al., 2012, Van der Linden, Bakx, Ros, Beijaard, & van den Bergh, 2015), even though research integration and experience can help undergraduate students prepare for a profession that demands continuous learning and deliberate adjustment to changing contexts (Griffioen, 2018; Healey & Jenkins, 2009; Munthe & Rogne, 2015).
In the Netherlands, over 90% of primary teacher education occurs at the bachelor level in universities of applied sciences (UASs); there is a strong focus on teaching practice. About 10 years ago, as a result of the Bologna declaration, the European Commission established the European qualification framework (European Commission, 2018) and the primary teacher education curriculum was reformed to include research activities. However, systematic evaluation of assumed value of pre- service teacher research for teacher quality has not yet taken place. International literature on pre-service teacher research shows clearly positive impacts of research training, such as the production of newly qualified teachers who engage in critical reflection, use research competence in practice, and adapt their teaching to students’ needs (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Cochran-Smith, Barnatt, Friedman, & Pine, 2009;

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