Page 135 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                inquiry (e.g., Bjuland, & Mosvold, 2015; Leavy & Hourigan, 2016; Næsheim-Bjørkvik, Helgevold & Østrem, 2019). The organisation of formal conferences, in which pre- service teachers present their inquiries to peers, teacher educators, teachers and school board members can stimulate sharing of findings and involve schools in inquiry projects (Schulz & Mandzuk, 2005).
Relationship between quality of pre-service teacher inquiry and teaching
We found a positive relationship between pre-service teacher inquiry and teaching
practice (Chapter 5). Given the correlative nature of this part of the study, any
causality remains obscure; however, the qualitative focus group data confirm a
relation between pre-service teacher inquiry and teacher quality. In addition, we are
aware that we used data only from one university of applied sciences. Nevertheless,
the perceived learner outcomes, as connected with the pre-service teacher profiles,
show that pre-service teacher inquiry attributes improve educational practice.
Because of the complex nature of education and the number and variety of factors 6 influencing professional development of pre-service teachers, a specifically designed
study is called for to measure the actual impact of pre-service teacher inquiry on teaching practice. A closer assessment of into this relationship could be beneficial for the improvement of teacher education. In our study, we measured the teaching quality and pre-service teacher inquiry quality using single assessment scores. Relationships between specific teaching competences, such as instructional skills, and specific inquiry competences, such as knowledge about research in the domain or inquiry habit of mind in practice, are not studied. Future research into these specific relationships and networks of factors is highly relevant for a careful evaluation and adaptations of teaching activities in the programme. It would provide deeper insights into the development of an inquiry stance. We advocate a proper experimental setup, across multiple institutes for primary teacher education, in which a sub-set of the most relevant factors identified here is controlled for and assessment scores are specific for each aspect of the teaching and inquiry competences.
Intended use of inquiry competences in the future profession
One of the aims of introducing research education in bachelor programmes is that the graduated professional will use the inquiry competences in their future profession (Griffioen, 2018). Although the questionnaires indicated that pre-service teachers were generally positive about the effects of undertaking pre-service teacher inquiry on their future jobs, in the focus groups they admitted that they did not expect to
General conclusion and discussion

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