Page 117 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Relationship among quality of inquiry, quality of teaching and perceptions toward inquiry
 behaviour scale is relatively low (M = 4.0), compared with the scales Value and Self- efficacy, but still above the scale mean. We observed no significant differences in perceptions of pre-service teachers across the cohorts, by age or by gender.
Most Important Learning Outcomes of Pre-Service Teacher Inquiry
As mentioned previously, 194 pre-service teachers (80% of the respondents) formulated their own most important learning outcome, which we subdivide into seven categories (see Table 5.2 for examples):
(1) To conduct research (undertake inquiry): pre-service teachers mentioned conducting research in general or focused on research aspects such as the research cycle.
(2) To write academically: pre-service teachers mentioned that academic 5 writing is difficult, something they have not encountered before.
(3) To use literature: pre-service teachers noted that inquiry involved using literature in new way, not just for passing an exam.
(4) Knowledge about the subject: pre-service teachers experienced becoming a specialist in a certain topic.
(5) An inquiry habit of mind: pre-service teachers mentioned several characteristics of an inquiry habit of mind (e.g., to be critical, to want to achieve), as well as an inquiry habit of mind itself.
(6) To link research and practice: pre-service teachers indicated that they experienced how to use research for improving practice.
(7) Miscellaneous: learning outcomes mentioned just once or twice (e.g., to be able to undertake inquiry independently and not in a group).
Most responses indicated ‘to conduct research/inquiry’ as most important learning outcome. Although ’to write academically’ and ‘to use literature’ also fit into the category ‘to conduct research/inquiry’, we decided to make separate categories for them because they were mentioned explicitly by more than 10 students. Over 40 pre-service teachers mentioned ‘knowledge about the subject’ or ‘to apply research in practice’. Thirty-four pre-service teachers responded with ‘an inquiry habit of mind’ specifically or else mentioned one or more characteristics of an inquiry habit of mind.

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