Page 112 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Chapter 5
 is typically in the form of design research or action research. This inquiry project is assessed by two teacher educators using scoring rubrics about all components of practitioner research, such as use of literature, content of the chosen topic, form and the quality of reflection on the process.
3 Methods
Study design
We used a multi-methods approach with a questionnaire and a database of assessment scores. Our analysis strategy consisted of confirmatory factor analyses on Likert-scale questions, which led to four scales measuring pre-service teachers’ attitudes to and perceptions of student research (RQ 1); a qualitative analysis of an open question about the most important learning outcome (RQ 2); calculating the correlation between the quality of pre-service teacher inquiry and the quality of pre-service teacher’s teaching, both based on assessment scores (RQ 3a); a cluster analysis to identify pre-service teacher profiles (RQ 3b) and, finally, descriptive statistics and an analysis of variance on the profiles and the perceptions of pre-service teacher inquiry (RQ 4) (see Figure 5.1).
Assessment scores
Quality of PST inquiry
Quality of PST teaching ICALT (n=80)
Perceptions of PST inquiry (CFA*)
- Value affective
- Value cognitive
- Efficacy - Future
Analysis of variance
PST Profiles
Most important learning outcome
Descriptive statistics
      Cluster analysis
      *CFA= confirmatory factor analysis
Figure 5.1 Design of the multi-methods approach with analysis strategy

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