Page 109 - Empowering pre-service teachers through inquiry - Lidewij van Katwijk
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                                Relationship among quality of inquiry, quality of teaching and perceptions toward inquiry
 Bergh, 2015). The main aim of teacher education is to educate future-proof teachers with an inquiry stance (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009; Dana & Yendol-Hoppey, 2019), who can work in inquiry-based contexts and use literature or conduct practitioner research to reflect on their own practices or those of their school organisation (Baan et al., 2019a). Inquiry-based working teachers show an inquiry habit of mind and contribute to a culture of inquiry at the school and classroom levels (Uiterwijk- Luijk, Krüger, Zijlstra, & Volman, 2019b). Characteristics of this inquiry habit of mind include being critical, curious and willing to share, as well as wanting to achieve deep understanding and improve one’s own practice (Earl & Katz, 2006; Van der Rijst, 2009; Van Katwijk et al., 2019a).
Although most teacher educators endorse the value of pre-service teacher
research, a considerable number of pre-service teachers seem sceptical of its relevance 5 for, and direct use in, the teaching profession (Puustinen et al., 2018; Reis-Jorge, 2007;
Ulvik 2014; Van Katwijk et al., 2019a). The intention to conduct practitioner research or
inquiry in a future job is related to perceptions and attitudes toward it (Van der Linden
et al., 2015; Vrijnsen-de Corte, Den Brok, Kamp, & Bergen, 2013). Van der Linden et
al. (2015) state that beliefs about research are equivalent to perceptions of its value,
which are more influential than knowledge and therefore strong predictors of future
Perceived and actual learning outcomes
Although extant studies do not frequently mention the learning outcomes of pre- service teacher research explicitly, four general findings emerge, mostly based on self-reports. First, most authors consider professional and personal development in general a learning outcome (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund, 2017; Ion & Iucu, 2016; Niemi & Nevgi, 2014; Råde, 2014). Taylor (2017) explicitly mentions the development of a teacher researcher identity, when the teacher educator uses narrative, pedagogical stories and take the role of teacher researcher. Others mention the development of an inquiry stance, including critical reflection, curiosity and wanting to share findings (e.g., Cochran-Smith et al., 2009; Råde, 2014; Uiterwijk-Luijk et al., 2019b; Ulvik, Ries and Roness 2017; Van Katwijk et al., 2019a). Second, studies often refer to knowledge about research and professional knowledge on various educational topics (e.g., Gray, 2013; Kowalczuk-Walędziak, Lopes, Underwood, Daniela, & Clipa, 2019; Munthe & Rogne, 2015; Van Katwijk et al., 2019a). Third, studies commonly consider the development of research skills, such as academic writing, beneficial (e.g., Aspfors & Eklund 2017; Baan et al., 2019b; Maaranen, 2009). Fourth, Baan et al.

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